Hematology is the specialty responsible for the diagnosis and management of a wide range of benign and malignant disorders of the red and white blood cells, platelets and the coagulation system in adults and children.
Clinical biochemistry uses biochemical knowledge and techniques to assist in the diagnosis of human disease, to follow its progress and to monitor the effect of treatment. The scope of investigations varies from assessment of organ function and endocrine glands to therapeutic drug monitoring.
Serology is related to tests that look for antibodies in your blood. They can involve a number of laboratory techniques. Different types of serologic tests are used to diagnose various disease conditions
Immunoassays are chemical tests used to detect or quantify a specific substance, the analyte, in a blood or body fluid sample, using an immunological reaction. Immunoassays are highly sensitive and specific. Their high specificity results from the use of antibodies and purified antigens as reagents. Techniques employed are mostly Immunofluorescence and Chemiluminescence.
Cytology is the exam of a single cell type, as often found in fluid specimens. It's mainly used to diagnose or screen for cancer. It's also used to screen for fetal abnormalities, for pap smears, to diagnose infectious organisms, and in other screening and diagnostic areas.
Histopathology is the branch of pathology that includes the microscopic identification and study of diseased tissue. It is an important part of anatomical pathology and surgical pathology, as accurate diagnosis of cancer and other diseases often requires histopathological examination of tissue samples. It is used to study how tissues are structured and how they work. It also helps in figuring out what causes certain diseases, how to treat those diseases, and whether the treatment has worked.
Medical microbiology, also known as clinical microbiology, is a subdiscipline of microbiology dealing with the study of microorganisms (parasites, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and prions) capable of infecting and causing diseases in humans). It also has an important role in directing treatment strategies towards specific set of microorganisms.